I'm reading the JLPT N3 読む guide and the explanation for the conjunction ただ says this:


Also, there's a section where the next sentence appears:


Why is と being used for this?

3 Answers 3



「~~違う」 means "is different from ~~".

The と in ~と違う indicates 「比較・類別の際に照合される相手」(明鏡国語辞典) or 「比較の基準」(#3 in デジタル大辞泉). It's used with a word that expresses difference, similarity, identity, or comparison, such as 同じ, 違う, 異なる, 似る, 比べる, etc. Eg:

同じ -- is same as~~
異なる -- differs from~~
似ている -- is similar to~~
比べる -- compare with~~

Related thread: How is と used in these sentences?

The と in ~と付け加えて説明する is quotative.

lit. (The word ただ is used to) additionally explain that there's something different from (something that deviates from / doesn't agree with) the content of the previous sentence.


~~となる (≂ ~~になる) means "become ~~." The と marks the result of change.

中止となりました means lit. "became cancellation" → "was cancelled"

Your example can be rephrased as 明日の旅行は中止になりました without changing the meaning. 中止なりました sounds a bit more formal than 中止なりました.

~となる and ~になる are not always interchangeable. For more, see: What is the difference between 〜となる and 〜になる?


前の文の内容と - With the content of the previous sentence

Noun + と - with(noun)

友達と - with friend

違うことがあると - If there is a difference

jisho + と - if(verb)

そこに行くとーIf you go there

付け加えて説明する - Add explanation


literally it means

If there is a difference With the content of the previous sentence Add explanation


Disclaimer: regarding your second question only (please consider splitting your question in two different ones).

The following patterns are very similar an both mean "A becomes B":

Aは Bなる

Aは Bなる

The difference between them is that 「AはBなる」 implies that B is the final state reached by A, whereas 「AはBなる」 does not.

For example:

昔はこの辺に畑がたくさんあったものだが、今はすっかり住宅地【じゅうたくち】なった。 Long ago, there were plenty of fields in this area. Now, it has completely turned into a residential district.

It is very unlikely that the area changes to a different kind of place in the future, therefore it is its final state and となる is used.

Similarly, in the sentence of the question

明日の旅行は中止なりました。 The trip tomorrow has been cancelled.

the trip has been cancelled。Since 「なる」 is used, we can infer that the possibility of uncancel the trip is very unlikely as "cancelled" is regarded as the final state of the trip.

  • @Kaskade, this is the reason why we don't say 「春となる」: since more seasons will keep coming, spring can't be the final state at all.
    – jarmanso7
    Sep 13, 2019 at 6:14
  • 「AはBになると¥」...「AはBになるに」 <-- You meant to type 「AはBとなる」「AはBになる」? なると is used. <-- You mean となる?
    – chocolate
    Sep 13, 2019 at 13:02
  • @Chocolate, yes, you are absolutely right, I mistyped it. Thank you!
    – jarmanso7
    Sep 13, 2019 at 14:37

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