I just read a manga where by context a girl broke up with her boyfriend. She says this.
Why is 彼氏に used alongside the verb?
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As you've noticed, this is an inverted word order of:
逃げられた here is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), which is a kind of Indirect Passive (間接受身).
As you know, in passive sentences the agent (動作主) of the action is marked with に. eg お母さんが私を褒める → 私がお母さんに褒められる. Here the agent of 逃げる is 彼氏, hence:
彼氏が逃げた (active) My boyfriend ran away.
→ 彼氏に逃げられた (indirect passive) My boyfriend ran away from me (which affected me in some way). / My boyfriend up and left (on me).
For more on Suffering Passive / Indirect Passive: