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When I want to say that something is too quick, just as an example, I can simply say

速すぎる。

However, I don't quite know how I could express sentences with "too" adverbially, such as in "I became sick because I ate the cake too quickly".

I came up with these two translations for the example above:

  1. ケーキの食べ方が速すぎて病気になってしまいました。
  2. ケーキを食べるのが速すぎて病気になってしまいました。

Do these convey the intented meaning? What would be more natural alternatives? And lastly, and I'm sorry for straying a little bit away from the original question here: Is 病気になる a natural way to say "become sick" in this case?

  • Possible duplicate of て form and adverbial meaning – jarmanso7 Sep 1 at 23:00
  • I think the translations you came up with are correct. See this answer for more insight on how to use the ~て form of a verb adverbially. – jarmanso7 Sep 1 at 23:03
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    By the way, if you have several questions I kindly suggest you to create several Stack questions for each one, even if they came up from one single sentence you are thinking about. – jarmanso7 Sep 1 at 23:08
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    If you want to dig a tiny bit deeper into the acceptability of 速く食べ過ぎた, and of other alternatives to conveying this meaning, here is an interesting thread on this very topic. – desseim Sep 3 at 2:46
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Your sentences are grammatical and natural-sounding (except for the use of 「病気になる」, which I will come back to later).

We say:

「Action A + の + が + 速{はや}すぎて + Action B」 ← The 「の」 is a nominalizer.

「Action A + 方{かた} + が + 速{はや}すぎて + Action B」 ← Use the continuative form for the verb in Action A -- 食べ方、歩き方、話し方、やり方, etc.

「Action A + の/方 + が + 速すぎる/すぎた + ため(に) + Action B」

Your two sentences are good because you used the first two of the three patterns above.

The mistake I occasionally see in Japanese-learners trying to express this is where they directly translate from English and end up saying it like:

・「速すぎて食べる」

・「速すぎる食べる」

Those sound highly unnatural and ungrammatical. In Japanese, you cannot use 「速すぎる・速すぎて」 to directly modify a verb the same way you can use "too quickly" to modify a verb in English.

Finally, regarding 「病気になる」. This phrase sounds far more serious than the English "to become or feel sick" for eating something too quickly. 「病気になる」 means none other than "to incur a disease".

The verb phrases that fit in your sentences much better would be 「気持{きも}ち / 気分{きぶん}が悪{わる}くなる」.

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    How about ケーキを速く食べすぎて気持ち悪くなった ? – Chocolate Sep 2 at 1:11
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    めっちゃ自然な表現やがな。なんで思いつかへんかったんやろ。おおきに~ – l'électeur Sep 2 at 1:45
  • What about "あまりに"? Something like "ケーキをあまりに速く食べて気持ち悪くなった"? – Right leg Sep 2 at 9:35

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