I've seen in Genki I みんな used without a particle (no particle follows the word). For example:



However, I've also seen sentences in which it is followed by a particle:



Using it with a particle makes sense to me, since I translate it as everyone. Why is it sometimes followed by a particle and sometimes not?


2 Answers 2


From the chat, by @Chocolate:

たいていみんな寝ています -- here みんな is an adverb. the subject is omitted
"They are all asleep"

みんなとてもしんせつです。 here again みんな is an adverb. No particle required. The subject is 家族 "They are all kind."

Another example:

みんなが出かけたあと、~~ -- After everyone left, ~~

here みんな is a noun

家族がみんな出かけたあと、~~ -- After my family all left (or, everyone of my family left)

here みんな is an adverb

A few more similar words (which work both as nouns and adverbs):

  • 全部
  • 全員
  • すべて

Not only can particles be omitted sometimes, especially in colloquial speech, みんな can also be an adverb as well as a noun.

For example:


Everyone in my family is good with music.


All people are different.

  • 1
    Thanks for anwsering. I understand the general reasons you give, but why would there be no particle in the examples I mentioned? They are not colloquial speech and I can't see how "minna" could be an adverb in them.
    – makamoe
    Sep 2, 2019 at 18:24
  • The difference between the meaning of everyone and all.
    – Jack Bosma
    Sep 3, 2019 at 11:42

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