I already learned how と functions. It is used when we’re talking about natural things. When something happens another thing always happens too. I sometimes see と sentence like this one:

街灯じゃ暗い カラスが頭上で笑った

Does this 笑った only present the past (I don’t understand why past verb is used with this と)? Or does it have any other different meaning?

1 Answer 1


Have you learned about quotative-と, which is typically used with 思う, 考える, etc? This と is not "when/if", but quotative. That is, 街灯じゃ暗い is what the crow "said" or "thought" (of course it's a personification).

街灯じゃ暗いと カラスが頭上で笑った
A crow laughed, (as if saying) "Street lights are dark!"

笑った is just the past tense of 笑う, and it has nothing to do with this usage of quotative-と.

  • Thank you very much !
    – Kiw
    Commented Aug 6, 2019 at 13:01

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