5

Sorry if this question has been asked before. I tried to look around for an answer but couldn't find it.

I just want to state before that my question is not regarding the verb ある or verbs with kanji + multiple hiragana (for example 負ける). The question is regarding verbs with kanji + single る.

I have some issues with the negative form of verbs ending with る. I know the basic rules for converting a verb into negative form (adding an あ-sound + ない) but i cant get a grasp on these. Sometimes it is らない and sometimes just ない. Is there a rule to when it is らない and when its just ない or is it just an irregularity?

Examples:

  • 出る -> 出ない
  • 降る -> 降らない
  • 着る -> 着ない
  • 切る -> 切らない

Thank you!

8

There are generally 3 categories of verbs, and their names depend on which textbook you use. There are Type 1 (五段), Type 2 (一段), and Irregular verbs.

  • The conjugation for negative form for Type 1 verbs:

    • Change the final sound to the corresponding one that ends in -a, then append ない
    • 切る→切ら→切らない
    • 歩く→歩か→歩かない
    • 会う→会わ→会わない (not 会あない)
    • 帰る→帰ら→帰らない
  • The conjugation for negative form for Type 2 verbs:

    • drop る and append ない
    • 出る→出ない
    • 見る→見ない
    • 変える→変えない

All Type 2 (一段) verbs end in -iru or -eru. The converse is not true; i.e. verbs that end in -iru and -eru may also be Type 1 (五段).

  • There are two other verbs ending in る – namely する and くる – that are irregular:

    • する→しない
    • くる→こない
  • 1
    Ok, so just to clarify; The only way to know for sure how to conjugate them is to know if the verb is 五段 or 一段? There are no reading/meaning patterns that tells this? – Sebastian Jun 25 at 9:46
  • 4
    If the sound that comes first is in the い or え column, then yes, you just have to know what category the verb is in to be able to conjugate it. If it's something else, like, for instance, 降る (where the ふ comes from the う column), it can't be an 一段 verb. – Leebo Jun 25 at 9:54
  • 3
    @Sebastian Yeah pretty much. 変える and 帰る are both かえる and they conjugate differently. You can probably get some intuition if a word is 五段 or 一段 after spending some time around words, but yeah the only way to know for sure is to know which type it is. – Flaw Jun 25 at 9:55
  • 1
    @Sebastian This page has complete conjugation schemes if you want to investigate further. – Flaw Jun 25 at 10:12

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.