In the example sentences of my textbook for the grammar 〜まま, it is used either with 「に」 (①) or without 「に」 (②,③): enter image description here In the case of ②, I understand that 「に」 is not necessary as まま is not acting as an adverb. Again, at ① it is used as an adverb so 「に」 is attached to it. What bugs me is the example sentence ③. I do not understand why 「まま」 is not attached「に 」even though it is modifying the verb:


Initially, I thought it might be one of those cases where a particle is ommitted in some instances and both possibilites (namely attaching 「に」or ommitting 「に」) are equally acceptable.

However, I encountered the same sentence later on as part of an exercise where I am asked to pick one option from either: enter image description here so obviously, the only possible option is not to attach「に」to 「まま」just like in the initial example sentence ③.

Why? What am I missing here?

Your help is much appreciated.

EDIT: Thanks to user3856370 for pointing out here that the「に」in ① comes from the grammar pattern noun+になる (and similarly, noun+にする), where 「まま」 is the noun.The example sentence ① is one of such cases.


  • 1
    It certainly isn't the whole story, but the まま you are seeing in your book is simply because に is part of the usual nounになる grammar. Jun 22, 2019 at 9:27
  • Yes, I see your point. Worth mentioning この/その/あのままする as well, for which I'm not sure if ままに is either a set expression as whole, it is まま being adverbialised, or it is the typical nounにする grammar pattern.
    – jarmanso7
    Jun 22, 2019 at 14:03
  • 1
    にする can also be a set pattern independent of まま. Maybe you should include some of those examples too. Like I said, it isn't the full story. I am aware of some cases where the に does seem to modify まま independently of the rest of the grammar, but I don't feel sufficiently qualified to talk about them. Jun 22, 2019 at 14:42


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