I Was trying to describe that a certain castle was located south of Kyoto, I would expect the phrase to be:
I was then thinking, how would I say that it is in Kyoto, but the southern part of Kyoto.
For example, in English there isn't exactly a rule that applies 100% to a specific phrase, but the syntax does differentiate the two meanings:
It is located ...
- in the South of France (1)
- to the south of France (2)
- south of France (2)
- in southern France (1)
- to France's south (2)
(1) denotes inside France, (2) denotes outside of France
What ways are there in Japanese to specify what I am calling "intra-" vs. "extra-" usage of cardinal directions?