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また、犯人意識、という言葉もあります。自分は、この人間の世の中に於いて、一生その意識に苦しめられながらも、...

I understand this as,

There's something called criminal consciousness. Even if I am suffering from this consciousness in this world of humans ...

What exactly does 'criminal consciousness' mean here ? If I simply club the meaning of 'criminal' and 'consciousness' would it mean the awareness of criminality or something similar ?

Why does the author say, I suffer because of this consciousness ?

Above sentence in a larger context:

また、犯人意識、という言葉もあります。自分は、この人間の世の中に於いて、一生その意識に苦しめられながらも、しかし、それは自分の糟糠の妻の如き好伴侶で、そいつと二人きりで侘びしく遊びたわむれているというのも、自分の生きている姿勢の一つだったかも知れないし、...

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犯人意識 is not really a common word at least in modern Japanese, but in my previous answer, I translated 犯人意識 as "the sense of guilt". This 意識 is "awareness", "feeling" or "sense" rather than "consciousness" in the sense of "state of being awake and alert".

Similar expressions include:

  • 民族意識: national consciousness (although 民族 is not exactly the same as 国家)
  • 帰属意識: sense of belonging; belongingness
  • 罪の意識: sense of guilt (罪の意識 and 罪悪感 are much more common than 犯人意識 in modern Japanese)
  • I completely missed the 'sense of guilt' in your last answer. 'sense' instead of 'awareness' makes a lot more sense. Thank you. – vadasambar Jun 14 at 2:04

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