A desk is a desk, but is there any important difference between the two words for "table"? Here is what the wwwjdic says:
卓 【たく; しょく】table; desk; (たく only) counter for tables, desks
机 【つくえ】 desk
There are several common compounds that include 卓 (e.g., 食卓, 卓上, ...), but 卓 as a standalone noun is uncommon. As a starter, you can stick to テーブル in almost all the cases where you want to say table.
In modern Japanese, 卓 as a standalone noun is used: