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錬金術師らの間でも 神への冒涜暗黙のうちに禁じられていると聞きますし

The first part is easy. Even among alchemists, blasphemy to God... と is tacitly forbidden, I hear.

What I am thinking is that it might be a quotation. As in 「神への冒涜」と is being forbidden. と in this case would specify what is tacitly forbidden.

Is it just that or does it have another meaning that I am missing.

暗黙 means tacit and the のうちに makes it tacitly. But usually (の)うちに means while; during; as when coupled with a noun. So is 暗黙のうちに just a common expression or is there more to うちに that meets the eye.

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「錬金術師{れんきんじゅつし}らの間{あいだ}でも 神{かみ}への冒涜{ぼうとく}(#1) 暗黙{あんもく}のうちに禁{きん}じられている(#2)聞{き}きますし」

The first 「と」 is not quotative. The second 「と」 is.

In the phrase 「冒涜と禁じられている」, the 「と」means 「として」 ("as"). It describes in what specific way the action/state of 「禁じられている」 is performed (and maintained). In this context, that specific way is "as a blasphemy".

「禁じる」 is just not an action that can take the quotative 「と」. The ones that can are 「言う」、「聞く」、「呼ぶ」、「思う」、「考える」、「感じる」, etc.

Perhaps the most common phrase that uses this type of non-quotative 「と」 would be 「~~ を師{し}仰{あお}ぐ」, which means "to look up to ~~ as one's preceptor".

Finally, regarding 「~~ のうちに」, @Chocolate has posted good links above, so I will not discuss it here.

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