I understand that family members are considered to be inside one's group, allowing for sentences such as: 先生は母にレポートを送ってくれた。/ The teacher sent my mother a report.

Now, in the world of business, who belongs to one's group, exactly? One's company, colleagues, outside contractors hired for a temporary two-day assignment??


  1. Company: お客様は弊社にお支払いをしてくれた。/ The customer paid our company.

  2. Colleagues: お客様は同僚にお支払いをしてくれた。/ The customer paid my colleague.

  3. A contracted consultant servicing a customer on behalf of the company: お客様はコンサルタントに要件を提供してくれた。/ The customer provided our consultant the requirements.

Can the three receivers (弊社、同僚、and コンサルタント) be thought of as part of one's group? (or is one's group restricted to only direct family members?)

I'm trying to practice the use of くれる, and need to understand who exactly can be the receiver.

Thanks in advance.

  • broccoli forest's answer seems to hint to this probably being 2 questions? "Who belongs to one's “group” in business?" and "Who can be the receiver of くれる", since their answer doesn't actually address the first one. So the latter part is the actual focus here?
    – NoxArt
    Apr 5, 2019 at 15:40
  • Good point. I'd like to stay focused on the question: "Who belongs to one's “group” in business?". I will modify my sentences to use only くれる and not ~てくれる to avoid confusion.
    – Daniel
    Apr 8, 2019 at 22:57

1 Answer 1


It seems you, or your teacher, confuses くれる with ~てくれる. The former, the "inbound" form of "give", is restrictive on the identity of receiver, that only allows roughly "those who are a part of life of you". The latter, a subsidiary verb that attaches to any other main verb, can be used regardless of the subject or the object, whenever the act benefits you in any degree, any form imaginable—your life, your job, or just making you a little happy.

So your three examples are all valid. You can even say something like:

バットマンが悪者を倒してくれた。 Batman has beaten the villain.

Neither Batman nor the villain is an existing person that may be related to you, but if the movie pleased you, you could say it.

  • Indeed, my book (teacher) does not distinguish between くれる and ~てくれて. It merely says that when using the ~て form, the action is initiated by the other person for "me." They give the example: 犬を荒れてくれた / S/he washed the dog for me. Are you saying that the following would also be valid: 彼は隣人に犬を荒れてくれた / S/he washed the dog for my neighbor (which benefited me in some way...maybe the dog smelled and I could smell him through my window or something).
    – Daniel
    Apr 8, 2019 at 23:17
  • So just to be sure, can the three receivers (弊社、同僚、and コンサルタント) be thought of as part of one's group?...assuming the use of くれる (not ~てくれる).
    – Daniel
    Apr 8, 2019 at 23:35
  • 1
    Yes, 彼は隣の犬を洗ってくれた in your situation is completely valid. For くれる, the "group" is actually variable, for example, when you're talking about the consultant as your agent between another party you may use it, but when about matters between your firm and your consultant, you might not use it. Apr 9, 2019 at 1:48
  • 1
    @Daniel Also, your family are usually naturally eligible to くれる, but maybe not when you have succession problems etc. Apr 9, 2019 at 1:51

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