4

As i found in jisho dictionary here

https://jisho.org/search/%23kanji%20寺

This word "国分寺" means "state-supported provincial temple"

国 means "state or region" and i understand why it is in the word

寺 means "temple" and of course it must be part of this word

But what is the function of 分 here?

2

Its English translation does not express the meaning of '分'. Also, '国' means national and country here rather than state or province. According to Wikipedia, "Buddhist temples established in each of the provinces of Japan". So, here '分' means split up '国'. That is why a lot of this kind of temples exist everywhere in Japan. You can see its detailed explanations here.

3

According to this Wikipedia article...

I take it that the 分 in 国分寺 means... (please note the bolded text)

『続日本紀』『類聚三代格』によれば、天平13年(741年)2月14日(日付は『類聚三代格』による)、聖武天皇から「国分寺建立の詔」が出された。その内容は、各国{かっこく}に七重塔を建て、『金光明最勝王経(金光明経)』と『妙法蓮華経(法華経)』を写経すること、自らも金字の『金光明最勝王経』を写し、塔ごとに納めること、国{くに}ごとに国分僧寺と国分尼寺を1つずつ設置し、僧寺の名は金光明四天王護国之寺、尼寺の名は法華滅罪之寺とすることなどである。

...that「国」is a way to show that each kuni (regional division) would get their own

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