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明日雨が降る公園に行きません。

(if it rains tomorrow, I won't go to the park)

Is it correct to use と in the sentence above?

I know that と is used like the English "whenever." So, my guess is that the sentence is not correct because it's only about tomorrow, not something which happens every time (I'd say ...降ったら...). However, today I heard it from a person whose level is very high, and now I'm not sure I know everything about this meaning of と. Thank you for your help!

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「と」 is used mostly for conditionals where the consequence is an expected one. For example:

雨が降ると道路が濡れます。 (The road gets wet when it rains.)

But what you want to say carries an intention, and also, there is only one outcome, meaning that if it rains you won't go to the park and you won't go somewhere else. So I'd use 「たら」:

明日雨が降ったら、公園に行きません。(If it rains tomorrow, I won't go to the park.)

Also, you could use 「ば」 or 「なら」 as well, as they are used for conditionals with assumptions.

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