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To translate :

My friend and I are going to the park.

, the following sentence can be used :

私{わたし}は友達{ともだち}公園{こうえん}に行{い}きます。

Literally :

I am going to the park with my friend.

と is used to represent with, and the subject (before は) is me (私). But if I want to emphasize more about the fact that the subject is me and my friend, I'd write :

私{わたし}と友達{ともだち}は公園{こうえん}に行{い}きます。

My questions :

  • is it possible to write this? Is this sentence grammatically correct?
  • if so, is there any difference between the first sentence and this one? I feel like writing "私と友達は..." emphasize more about the subject (me and my friend) than "私は友達と..." (me with my friend)
  • is it more polite to use 友達{ともだち}と私{わたし} instead of 私{わたし}と友達{ともだち} (because my friend is placed first)?
  • more generally, can we encounter particles (like と) in the subject of a sentence (before は)? Or are they necessarily placed after the subject?
  • 1
    The topic of a sentence (marked by は) can be a long and complex phrase. 私と友達 is quite simple as far as topics go. – user3856370 Feb 12 at 22:45
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is it possible to write this? Is this sentence grammatically correct?

Yes.

if so, is there any difference between the first sentence and this one? I feel like writing "私と友達は..." emphasize more about the subject (me and my friend) than "私は友達と..." (me with my friend)

In 私は友達と…, the 私 is the topic, in other words, the sentences around it are saying that you did such and such, then did something with your friend. On the other hand, sentences around 私と友達は would be saying that you and your friend did such and such then did it.

is it more polite to use 友達と私 instead of 私と友達 (because my friend is placed first)?

Neither is particularly more polite. What you said is what we would discover in our English class.

more generally, can we encounter particles (like と) in the subject of a sentence (before は)? Or are they necessarily placed after the subject?

Geminiation of nouns produces a noun as a whole.

  • 少年と少女(と)が冒険する物語: a story where a boy and a girl have an adventure
  • パンにバターがお気に入り: bread with butter is my favorite

So does genitive.

  • 城の塔が見えた: I saw the tower in the castle

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