As far as I know all じる verbs are supposed to be 一段.

I found an interesting set of rules online:

Does the verb end in る?
No → 五段
Yes → Does it have an e or i sound before the る?
No → 五段
Yes → Is the e or i sound part of the okurigana of the verb?
Yes → 一段
No → Could be both.

And someone posted the following counter examples to rule 3:

混じる (まじる)
脂ぎる (あぶらぎる)
捩じる (ねじる)
抓める (つめる)

So I looked it up and found a few explanations for why these aren't valid examples.

脂ぎる seems like it's just 脂 + きる (unsure which kanji).
捩じる is 捩る or maybe some funky 二段/四段/s-irregular stuff. (Still wondering though, because じる was made for 一段.)
抓める is 抓る.

I found that 混じる can also be 混る, but that spelling is listed in no dictionary.

So am I just ass-pulling stuff, or is the rule wrong or is まじる really special?

  • The version of the rule I saw pointed out that it applies only when you have at least 2 kanji in the stem (e.g. 見る is out). Feb 12, 2019 at 8:31
  • 3
    You can think as you like. There's no rule to begin with.
    – user4092
    Feb 13, 2019 at 7:31

2 Answers 2


Many on-reading + じる verbs are indeed ichidan verbs, e.g., 信じる, 感じる, 念じる, 演じる. This じる is etymologically just する. Note that these verbs have zuru-ending variations like 信ずる. See: Origin of 信じる, 感じる, etc?

However, まじる has nothing to do with this rule. まじる is a plain godan verb whose stem happens to include じ. Likewise, かじる, もじる and ねじる are godan verbs.

There is a rare verb こんじる, which is also written as 混じる in kanji. Since こん is an on-reading, this conjugates as an ichidan verb, and has a variation, 混ずる(こんずる). This is used only in highly stiff documents.

混る【まじる】 is a rare spelling variant of 混じる【まじる】, and it's perhaps considered nonstandard by today's standards. Omission of okurigana has nothing to do with the type of the verb. See: What's the difference between 落す and 落とす?


I don't know about the rule but 混じる does conjugate like a ichidan verb.

混じます, 混じない, 混じて

If it walks like a duck ...

Weirdly, on jisho.org it says its a godan verb but with inflections like an ichidan verb

  • 2
    If you visit the Jisho.org entry here and click the "Show inflections" button on the upper left, you should see only godan inflections. The ichidan inflections are for the 混【こん】じる reading, a separate word. Sep 5, 2019 at 18:18

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