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I saw a movie labeled

インディペンデント作品

The adjective インディペンデント does not end in i and is followed by neither na nor no here. Is this meant as a strange compound noun (katakana + kanji)? Or is this a partial translation of 'independent film', keeping the English grammar?

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I think in your example, インディペンダント is used as a noun indeed, a movie genre for example: "Independent".
You can compare with expressions such as ホラー映画.

The confusing part may be that there are also adjectives made from these same words, but their usage and meaning slightly differs: インディペンデントな働き方, ホラーなトイレットペーパー (?!).

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