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I'm struggling with how to say "robust software" in Japanese.

From Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robustness_(computer_science):

In computer science, robustness is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution[1][2] and cope with erroneous input.

There is no Japanese version of this page. I have searched weblio and Google and found examples of 堅牢なソフトエア and ロバストなソフトエア being used, albeit not very many. There is also this document from The University of Tokyo on robust software. http://www.i.u-tokyo.ac.jp/coe/report/H14/21COE-ISTSC-H14_5_5_1_2.pdf

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If you're looking for commonly used technical terms among Japanese software engineers go to Qiita.

Let me quote two version of robustness:

変化{へんか}に対{たい}して、十分{じゅうぶん}強い仕組{しく}みがロバストです。

Slightly more complicated:

起{お}こりうる変化を十分に予測{よそく}し、対策{たいさく}を打{う}ってあることが前提{ぜんてい}になることです。

From this article about antifragile. Also related is Chaos Engineering, where I found the antifragile article.

Usually this term is being used among DevOps or people who manage a group of distributed and resilient services using Containerized OS or Kubernetes. From the technical discussion among people in this circle, you'll find what robustness means, and you can translate it in a better way.

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I think ロバストなソフトウェア would be understandable by many technical people.

If you needed to explain what exactly you meant by「ロバスト」, you might say something like,

「エラーが起{お}こっても処理{しょり}は止{と}まらない」

https://www.weblio.jp/content/%E3%83%AD%E3%83%90%E3%82%B9%E3%83%88

(second definition)

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