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I understand that あります is used for presenting or describing the location of things but I was unsure of how it is being applied in these two sentences:

あなたの学校に何がありますか。

Am I right in assuming that this is saying 'what is at your school?'

この教室にだれがいますか。

Am I right in assuming this is saying 'who is in that classroom?'

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Am I right in assuming that this is saying 'what is at your school?'

Yes.

Am I right in assuming this is saying 'who is in that classroom?'

No, since この means "this", the answer is

"Who is in this classroom?". Not "that".

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あります and います are both used for the verb "to exist". While this is quite formal in English, it is very common in Japanese. It's often loosely translated to "There is..." The key difference is that あります is used for inanimate objects and います is used for animate objects (such as people or animals). Their meaning is otherwise the same but it's considered rude to use あります for people like calling them "that" or "it".

Both are commonly used with locations:

あなたの学校に何がありますか。

What [thing(s) are] is there at your school?

この教室にだれがいますか。

Who is there in this classroom?

Note that this is just one usage of these verbs. They're also important for ongoing states and habitual actions.

私は日本語を勉強しています

I am studying Japanese language

ドアが開けてあります。

The door is open

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