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I got the following sentence from Atashin'chi manga: それだけしかオカズがない, meaning "there's only this on the okazu" (Literally: "Without this, the okazu doesn't exist)

Can I create a similar sentence trying to use to same logic like "一つ問題しか試験がない" meaning "there is only one question on the test" (Literally: "Without one question, the test doesn't exist)?

My teacher said I can't but he couldn't explain why.

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How about thinking of it this way...

[subject] が [quantity] ある。/ [quantity] [subject] がある。

[subject] が [quantity] しかない。」/ [quantity] しか [subject] がない。

So you can say...

[おかず] が [これだけ] ある。/ [これだけ] [おかず] がある。
"There's this much okazu."

[おかず] が [これだけ] しかない。/ [これだけ] しか [おかず] がない。
"There's only this much okazu."

In the same way...

[問題] が [ひとつ] ある。/ [ひとつ] [問題] がある。
"There's one question."

[問題] が [ひとつ] しかない。/ [ひとつ] しか [問題] がない。
"There's only one question."

So.. for "There is only one question on the test", I think you can (literally) say like...

「試験/テストに、問題が一つしかない。」
「試験/テストに、一つしか問題がない。」

Or maybe more naturally...

「試験/テスト(の)問題が、一つしかない。」
「試験/テスト(の)問題が、[一問]{いちもん}しかない。」

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