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I always thought that with construcions I like/I hate I should use noun +が + adjective +です, for example: ねこがすきです。 But lately I have heard in some japanese podcast above sentence with that のは construction. What does that mean? Is it the same as が or implies some other stuff?

Ps. I know that の changes verb into verbal noun, such as in the sentence: テレビをみるのがすき. There is also that のが / のは but my question is all about のは used with adjective.

Thank you very much for your help!

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さむいのはきらい is grammatical. But さむいがきらい is not.

You understand how のは/が is used with verbs, but it is used in the same way with i-adjectives and na-adjectives. The subject marker particle が must follow a noun or noun phrase. So さむいが is ungrammatical just like みるが is ungrammatical, and the problem is fixed in the same way, by nominalising the predicate.

As an aside, you can also change many i-adjectives into nouns by changing the final い to さ. This would turn cold into coldness. Then you could say さむさがきらい.

Another aside: I said that さむいがきらい is ungrammatical, but that is assuming that が is the subject particle. If が were the conjuctive particle, meaning 'but', then this would be perfectly grammatical and could mean something like "It's cold but I hate it."

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