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この羽織は、三輪田のお光さんのおっかさんが織ってくれたのを、紋付に染めて、お光さんが縫い上げたものだと、母の手紙に長い説明がある.

**

I can grasp the overall meaning: in mom's letter there is a long explanation about the fact that omitsu's mother wove a haori that omitsu herself later dyed and ended. But I don't understand exactly how "のを” and ”だと” relates to the verbs. I mean, how to explain them "grammaticaly"?

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This is a deeply-nested sentence, but the "outer" structure is:

[この羽織は、(long relative clause here) ものだ]、母の手紙に長い説明がある。
In Mom's letter, there is a long explanation that says "This haori is (such-and-such) a thing."

と in bold is quotative, and everything before it is a content of the explanation. In the quote, この羽織 is the subject, and its corresponding predicate is ものだ which is modified by a fairly long relative clause.

Next, let's consider the "inner" part, the long relative clause modifying もの:

((三輪田のお光さんのおっかさんが織ってくれた→)を、紋付に染めて、お光さんが縫い上げた→)もの

This roughly translates to "The thing (haori) which was woven and dyed with a kamon by Omitsu's mother in Miwada and then sawed and finished by Omitsu (herself)".

の in bold is interchangeable with もの ("thing"), and in this context it refers to the new fabric before dyeing. This の is working as the object of the following two verbs, 染める and 縫い上げる.

You may be unsure about how the large relative clause modifying もの works because there are already subjects and objects in it. If that is the case, consider the following simplified "double-subject" base sentence:

この羽織、お光さんのおっかさん布を染めて、お光さん縫い上げた。
Regarding this haori, Omitsu's mother dyed cloth, and Omitsu sawed and finished it.

Which can be relativised to:

(お光さんのおっかさんが布を紋付きに染めて、お光さんが縫い上げた→)もの
the thing made by Omitsu's mother dying cloth and Omitsu sewing and finishing

Similar exmaples are found here.

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