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I've seen that 上京する "going to Tokyo", 来阪する "going to Osaka" are used to refer to visiting these cities.

What other terms are in use for visiting other cities? Which of them are commonly understood?

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    ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/… ← ほぼ知らないけど・・ – Chocolate Jan 11 '19 at 0:37
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    来名してくれたら教えてあげる。それともワシが訪豪しよか? – l'électeur Jan 11 '19 at 1:46
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    @Chocolate 京都って普段上洛・下洛・訪洛とかって言いますか? – broccoli facemask - cloth Jan 11 '19 at 2:21
  • @bro, 普段は言わないですね~。 – Chocolate Jan 11 '19 at 2:52
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    We use 来福 here in Fukuoka, but it seems that people in 福島 and 福井 also say it to mean coming to there prefecture. Here is a list I found: kanjicafe.jp/detail/7095.html – DXV Dec 16 '19 at 7:40
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What other terms are in use for visiting other cities?

There are simply too many to mention as we are essentially talking about combinations of two kanji where the first one functions as a verb and the second, as a place.

The first kanji will be 「来{らい}」 for visiting、「帰{き}」 for returning、「上{じょう}」 for visiting (only for Tokyo and Kyoto)、「在{ざい}」 for staying, etc.

The second kanji will mostly be the first kanji from the city or prefecture name (with many exceptions), which is why we have a long list of these two-kanji words.

As mentioned by @Chocolate above, a good reference will be:

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BA%8C%E5%AD%97%E7%86%9F%E8%AA%9E%E3%81%AB%E3%82%88%E3%82%8B%E5%BE%80%E6%9D%A5%E8%A1%A8%E7%8F%BE%E3%81%AE%E4%B8%80%E8%A6%A7#%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E3%81%AE%E9%83%BD%E9%81%93%E5%BA%9C%E7%9C%8C%E3%81%AE%E4%BA%8B%E4%BE%8B

Which of them are commonly understood?

Very few indeed. That is because the vast majority of these words are mostly locally used and recognized.

Very roughly (but honestly) speaking, only the Tokyo- and Osaka-related words would be understood nation-wide without any context or explanation. Those words are 「上京」、「帰京」、「在京」、「来阪」、「帰阪」、「在阪」, etc.

I used 「来名」 in my comment above, but not too many non-Nagoyan-Japanese would understand that word without context. With non-Nagoyans, I would have to use 「古屋にる」 instead.

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There are other constructions with 来 such as 来日, 来店, 来場 etc. (mostly formal words for use with keigo 本日はご来場いただき、まことにありがとうございます).

The short answer for 上 is that there really isn't. As noted in the comments, there are compounds such as 上洛. However, the dictionary under じょう or 上 doesn't reveal much else for common words.

On the other hand, 上京 has enough currency and is so logically formed that an audience would understand any new construction of 上 + (on-yomi of first character of place name) + する provided enough context. It would likely be taken as a joke.

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  • There are other possibilities, such as 渡米. – Casey May 23 '19 at 0:07
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    「来場」 has nothing to do with this question. – l'électeur Aug 18 '19 at 5:19

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