Can you please help me with this phrase please,

"時間{じかん}は十分{じゅうぶん}にあるので, 急{いそ}ぐことはありません。"

What is the meaning (or the grammatical role) of に in 十分に??

Thanks in advance.🌸


It changes 十分 into an adverb. Because 十分 is a na-adjective, when you want to change it into an adverb, you put に after it. Note that ある is a verb, so to describe it, you need an adverb.

You can read more about it here.

EDIT: As naruto mentions, 十分 is also an adverb by itself so the に is optional.

EDIT2: However, based on the corpus provided by The National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (there's 2 separate entries for 十分 based on the parsed grammatical part of speech), 十分 is used with the に a bit more frequently: 十分に+動詞 (3686) vs 十分+動詞 (533+1307=1840).

Note that the second number is probably higher due to some 932 entries that weren't analyzed (未分析).

For ある specifically, it seems that there's a preference for 十分ある (227) over 十分にある (139+2).

  • 2
    I think this answer is not wrong per se, but 十分 is also an adverb, so this に is optional.
    – naruto
    Dec 29 '18 at 23:16
  • 3
    十分 is used with the に much more frequently: 十分に+動詞 (3686) vs 十分+動詞 (533) <--「十分(に)○○が○○する」みたいな文型は含まれないんですよね・・  「時間は十分あるので」「時間は十分にあるので」どっちもいいと思いますけど。。 ちなみに、少納言では、「十分あ+り/る/れ/っ」は229件、「十分あ+り/る/れ/っ」は202件ですね。。
    – Chocolate
    Jan 9 '19 at 0:49
  • 1
    @Chocolate ああ、「十分」の見出しは二つがある。もう一つの見出しにある「十分+動詞」は最低限に(未分析が多い)1307結果がある。総計すると、そんなに大きな差ではないみたいです。でも、「十分ある」のほうは結果が多い(227 vs 139+2)。少納言はすごく興味深いです。教えてくれてありがとう!
    – Ringil
    Jan 9 '19 at 20:01

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