I assume you're specifically talking about kanji/hanzi glyphs. (Hiragana are obviously more cursive.) Basically the overall appearances of typical Chinese hanzi and Japanese kanji fonts are not significantly different in terms of line width, roundness, etc., just as English "A", French "A" and German "A" are rendered the same. If you compare recent professionally-made pamphlets of both languages from, say, Tokyo Disney Land, you should notice almost no difference.
If you noticed some difference, it's probably because it is hard for a designer to find a Chinese font that looks similar to the Japanese font they want to use. While ordinary Japanese designers have lots of Japanese fonts with lots of Japanese kanji, they cannot use them to produce natural-looking Chinese sentences, and vice versa, because there are large regional variants for many kanji/hanzi. As a consequence, they often have to choose a Chinese font that looks different from the one used in the Japanese version. It's very easy to find fonts that can render all major Western languages, but finding a good-looking "Unicode" font that satisfies both Japanese and Chinese readers is still difficult. Thanks to Adobe and Google, we now have at least one reasonable free font that offers consistent look across CJK languages. From Adobe Typekit Blog:
Source Han Sans, available in seven weights, is a typeface family which provides full support for Japanese, Korean, Traditional Chinese, and Simplified Chinese, all in one font.
With Ryoko’s designs in progress, we knew that to develop a truly successful Pan-CJK font, we would require expertise that could be found only in type foundries with years of in-country design experience. We chose to partner with Iwata to expand our Japanese glyph selection. In Korea, we went with Sandoll Communication, who also designed the Korean hangul (the native alphabet of the Korean language) and in China, we partnered with our longtime friends at Changzhou Sinotype. Our project had now grown to become a collaborative effort between five companies — something somewhat unprecedented in the world of type design.
Why was it important to get this expertise? Well, the writing systems for each language, particularly their ideographs that are based on historical Chinese forms, took different paths over time. While some characters remained unchanged and common across the languages, others morphed into regional variations. One can see these in the glyphs represented below. While the variations may be subtle, especially to the Western eye, they are very important to the users of each language.
Ideograph U+66DC. From left to right: Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.
EDIT: In the case of that calendar, I'm pretty sure that consistency was not intended in the first place, because Japanese was clearly the primary language that should stand out. This Japanese font is probably 筑紫Aオールド明朝, a popular but expensive Japanese font with antique-looking stylized hiragana. It's adding a good traditional flavor, but it's not a reasonable choice when cross-language consistency is considered important. On the other hand, the Chinese font seems to be some generic-looking serif to me. So this is what happens when a Japanese designer does something mainly targeting at Japanese audience :)