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Today, I've seen a question about 貸してあげる、貸してもらう

Here's the context:

りえ : きれいなカメラですね。
あや : これですか。山田さん_____ _____。

These are the choices:

  1. が、貸してあげました
  2. に、貸してもらいました
  3. が、貸していただきました。
  4. に、貸してくださいました。

I think 3 and 4 are incorrect but I don't understand the differences between 1 and 2.

山田さんが貸してあげました means Yamada gave lending a camera to me.
山田さんに貸してもらいました means I received lending a camera from Yamada.

I honestly think that 1 and 2 are correct but the answer has to be only one. Can anyone explain the differences please ?               

3

Lets look at each answer individually and analyze why there are correct/incorrect

X 1.これですか。山田さんが、貸してあげました

Incorrect.

The red flag to me here is that あげる is a verb that only the speaker can do. So for the speaker to say that 山田さん is doing the あげる is grammatically incorrect.

O 2.これですか。山田さんに、貸してもらいました

Correct. There are no grammar issues here.

X 3.これですか。山田さんが、貸していただきました

Incorrect.

いただく is only used with regard to the speaker. Like in the first answer, we cannot use いただく with respect to 山田さん.

X 4.これですか。山田さんに、貸してくださいました

Incorrect.

This took a few minutes for me to figure out. The use of に is incorrect, as there is no need for direction particles with giving. Giving verbs are always (subject) gives _____. With receiving there is a direction involved (person) receives ____ from (giver).

  • So would "Yamada-san ga kashite kudasaimashita" be correct as well? – Pedro A Dec 15 '18 at 22:54
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    I'm not sure if you're simplifying for the sake of a new learner, but some of your generalizations about verbs being usable only by the speaker are incorrect. あげる is also the default verb for when one third party does something for another third party (see #6 coelang.tufs.ac.jp/mt/ja/gmod/contents/explanation/085.html). いただく can similarly be used for third parties (where 謙譲語 is appropriate). – Mindful Dec 16 '18 at 0:29
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    Things never change whoever does to whom. You use やる(あげる)when the gift goes away and くれる when it comes inward. You use the former in #6 because being the subject is a factor to be closer to the speaker. – user4092 Dec 16 '18 at 2:42
  • If I want to make choice 1 correct, the speaker of sentence 2 (あや) must be Yamada ? Is changing 山田さんが貸してあげる to 山田さんが貸してくれる the other way to correct it ? – Kiw Dec 16 '18 at 3:13
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    @Mindful, You are correct to say that it can be used in reference to people other than the speaker. Those people are associated with the speaker (i.e. same group), and the gift is somehow related to you/your group. I simplified the result because for the scope of the question, it was nominally correct. – ajsmart Dec 16 '18 at 16:31
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[A.] あげる means to give 与える but the word itself contains connotation of from lower position to higher as its original meaning indicates (上げる), even though this word itself is not classified as honorific word. 

Therefore, speaker or 私 as object for あげる will never fit as matching couple. In Japanese social value, 私 should not be placed at higher position.  

  • 私に(XXて)あげる should not be used like:
  • 山田さんが(私に)貸してあげました。
  • (私に)must be someone else.

[B.] When speaker or 私 becomes receiver for the action of giving, もらう has been prepared in order to avoid case A.  Object person for もらう is always 私 or people considered to be on speaker's side. 

(私が)山田さんに貸してもらいました。 is very reasonable expression for the situation asked in this question.

[C.] いただく is humble expression for もらう so that subject person for いただく must be speaker or 私 including people considered to be on speaker's side.

There will be a possible situation that 山田さんが社長 に/から 貸していただきました。and while あや is holding that camera, りえ noticed the camera and she asked to あや. But it is a long story and such story may not be the intention of this question.

[D.] くださる is respecting expression for あげる so that subject person who does くださる should be higher position against receiver. Speaker or 私 only can fill the position of object and may not be the subject.

Who is subject person for 山田さんに貸してくださいました。? Again we will go to the story in [C.]. 社長が山田さんに貸してくださいました。

And again, we will shut the possibility for such story.

  • 上げる is basically used only when someone in a lower position gives an action to another one higher. So I can never say someone gives an action to me with    "A が (私に) Vてあげる" . If I want to imply that someone gives an action to me, I have to use only "(私が) Aに Vてもらう". Is it correct ? Thanks a lot. – Kiw Dec 16 '18 at 2:58
  • @kiw あげる = a lower position gives an action to another one higher. <-- source ? – virmaior Dec 16 '18 at 3:31
  • I think you're (@kiw) confusing two different families of verbs くれる/くださる is one vs. 申し上げる・あげる・やる – virmaior Dec 16 '18 at 3:32
  • [A.] あげる means to give 与える but the word itself contains connotation of from lower position to higher as its original meaning indicates (上げる), even though this word itself is not classified as honorific word refers to Nishishoro. I think あげる is that someone gives an action to another and if I want to express that someone gives an action to me I cannot use Aが私にvてもらう. I have to use Aに私がvてもらう. Is this right ? Thanks very much. – Kiw Dec 16 '18 at 4:32

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