In all the japanese learning books, they teach you that xxxday ends with 曜日.
But sometimes I get to see xxx曜 only without the "Day" Kanji.
Can I shorten it when speaking too or is it only written ? And when can I shorten it ?
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It is not clear cut, but my impression is that the tendency is that 日曜日 means a particular day that is Sunday whereas 日曜 means Sunday in general or series of Sundays.
'I will go out on next Sunday.'
'I go out on Sundays.'
When it is clear that it is not about a particular day but is about a series of days, this contrast becomes clear.