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I do not quite understand why some sentences do not need particle に.

For example:

いすはテーブルの上です

Instead, is it gramatically correct to say:

いすはテーブルの上にです

Like in this sentence:

いすはテーブルの上にあります

What is the difference here in using に particle???
Why あります needs using this particle and です does not???

2

It is because です is not a verb but auxiliary verb.

In Japanese language, auxiliary verb has differenct character and function from English.

です only supports noun and adjective to make predicate so that there is no room for particles to appear.

  • これは【いす】です。  noun
  • いすはテーブルの【上】です。 noun
  • テーブルの上は【硬い】です。 adjective               

Below are に + verb.

  • いすはテーブルの上にあります。                    
  • いすは下に落ちます。                         
  • テーブルは横に倒れます。                       

Particle に as well as others like で、を、へ、etc. are used to indicate direction/destination/location/etc. for action (verb). They have nothing to do with material (noun) or situation (adjective).

That's why particles do not appear when there is no verb.

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