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What does くっ change to the meaning?

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つける ~ join, put, wear... it means to put one thing onto one another.

くっつける ~ stick... so it means to put something onto one another so that it does not come off.

The くっ from くっつける comes from 食い.

https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/jn/60197/meaning/m0u/%E9%A3%9F%E3%81%84%E3%81%A4%E3%81%8F/

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くっ is a variant of the prefix 食{く}い~. So the original form would have been 食い付ける.

When a verb is prefixed with the morpheme 食い~ (or variants like くっ~), it adds an additional meaning to the base verb. As is obvious from the kanji, this can be the addition of a literal action of eating, chewing, or using the mouth/teeth. But it can also be a figurative meaning which adds an idiomatic sense to the base verb. From the examples below, you can see that the prefix 食い~ seems to add volition and/or intensity to the original action. It is as if conjuring up the image of teeth brings with it a certain ferocity which lends a sense of struggle (or at least intent) to that original verb.

込{こ}む be crowded → 食{く}い込{こ}む encroach, erode, bite into

つける attach → くっつける stick together

しばる fasten → 食{く}いしばる clench one's teeth

つぶす crush → 食{く}いつぶす eat yourself out of everything

入{い}る go in → 食{く}い入{い}る encroach upon

ちぎる tear up → 食{く}いちぎる bite off

とめる stop → 食{く}いとめる hold back

さがる step back → くいさがる cling to, hold back, doggedly oppose

違{ちが}う differ → 食{く}い違{ちが}う clash with

(All definitions from EDICT2 - LINK)

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