6

20日過ぎに海行くんだ

I'm pretty sure this means

going to the sea in 20 days

but 過ぎる signifies elapsed time, so could it possibly be

going to the beach for 20 days

?

5

Of course @Chocolate has already given the correct answer, but let me just note that the meaning of 過ぎる of "elapsing time" that you mentioned is correct, although I would rather think of it as passing a particular point in time (or exceeding a particular fixed period of time).

8時過ぎに電話してください = 8時が過ぎたら電話してください
Please call me after 8 o'clock = Please call me when 8 o'clock has passed

Here it refers passing a particular point in time (8 o'clock); similarly the transitive 過ごす can also be used for passing a physical location, as for example in 乗り過ごす (see "Norikosu" vs. "Norisugosu").

14

「~~過ぎ」 can mean "past~~" "after~~".

Examples from プログレッシブ和英中辞典:

20日過ぎに (sometime) after the twentieth
8時過ぎに電話してね Call me after eight.

  • I will translate it as over just like 20 days is over since ... (some action). – sooon Nov 29 '18 at 23:42
  • 2
    ^ That would be 「(some action)から20日が過ぎた」 – Chocolate Nov 30 '18 at 0:31

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