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I'm currently learning about っぱなし. My grammar book (Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar) says that when the verb is intransitive it means 'keep doing' but when the verb is transitive it means 'leave in a certain state'. It gives the example:

友達にまだお金を借りっぱなしだ。
I borrowed money from a friend and still haven't paid it back.

If I hadn't read the bit about transitive/intransitive I would have translated that as "I still keep borrowing money" e.g. every month I have to borrow money.

How would I express that idea of: keep doing a transitive action? e.g. I keep eating cake from the fridge.

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I think that you are looking for し続ける:

  • ちょこちょこ(冷蔵庫の)ケーキを食べ続けます
    I keep eating cake from the fridge.

  • 彼は上手くなり続けるようです
    It seems that he keeps improving.

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