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I understand what the particle で does as far as describing how or where an action took place. But I notice that I run into で many other times where it seems to have a different function.

Could someone help clarify the uses of で? Specifically its uses other than describing how/where an action occurred.

An example would be something like this:

必ず届くこのいっしゅんのひかりで

Or as used in では, or じゃ. I know what it means in conjugations for adjectives and such, but I often see just では following other words like nouns with no verb after it or any thing. In the case where it's alone like that, what does it mean?

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    There are many ways で can be used. Do you have a specific example in mind? Otherwise the question is very broad. – Leebo Nov 2 '18 at 5:05
  • Sure, I'll update it with an example. – shenk Nov 2 '18 at 5:08
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    But that's still exactly how/where the action occurred... – Tommy Nov 2 '18 at 6:26
  • I want to note that で is not always particle. Sometimes it's te-form of だ. I'm not sure if this is consensus or there is different point of views, but from sources where I seen it で in ではない is also te-form of だ. – sklott Nov 2 '18 at 10:09
  • Ahh, I didn't know that. Thanks! That does beget another question though. I can't think of any time I've seen it used outside of things like ではありません/じゃありません/etc. Could you give me an example/situation using the て form of だ/です outside of the uses I already mentioned? – shenk Nov 2 '18 at 21:04

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