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誰が止めるというの 心が叫んだ声を

I've tried to break down each word and particle to decipher the meaning myself since I think that'd be the best way to fully grasp it. So far I've got it down to "I stop because the voice of my heart is crying."

I know that 誰 usually means who but is more commonly used to refer to a person rather than a direct translation to who, though I couldn't find something to back up that it could refer to ones self.

Right after that it says “が止める” which I figure should stay right after "I" rather than going at the end of the sentence referring to how he could stop the heart from crying.

“というの” I did research on this one since it did confuse me quite a tad, I found that it's most commonly used as "someone says A" or "I heard that A". The translations I've found the most are "means", "that is to say", or "because"; since he is referring to himself I figure the の gives it a somewhat possessive tone, though if it doesn't I still believe it would be "because" in the end due to the 誰 at the beginning.

“叫んだ” I've found could be a colloquial inflection of “さけんぶ” where as the だ replaces ぶ, it's still a particle meaning "is".

Now “声を” being at the end kind of confuses me a little, as the を is indeed referring to the subject at hand, why is at the end and not before sakenda, or even before kokoro? Does the placement have a specific effect or is that just more grammatically correct?

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誰が止めるというの 心が叫んだ声を

It's inversion/anastrophe (倒置) of 「心が叫んだ声を 誰が止めるというの」.

心が叫んだ声 is the object of 止める.

「誰が~~というの?」 means "Who will stop~~?" (or more literally, "Who do you say will stop?"). It's a rhetorical question (修辞疑問文/反語表現), implying "No one will~~." (For more on this 「疑問詞 + ~~というの?」: What does っていうんだ mean? / About っていうか&っていうの&っていうんだ)

叫んだ is the past form of [叫]{さけ}ぶ, "to shout" "to scream".

心が叫んだ声 literally means "voice which a heart shouted". 心が叫んだ ("a heart shouted") is a relative clause that modifies 声 ("voice").

So the sentence literally means "Who (do you say) will stop the voice that the heart shouted? (-- No one will.)" "Who will stop the cry/scream that my heart let out? (-- No one will.)"

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