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Words like 大人、下手、上手... as おとな, へた, じょうず.
What is the name for terms of this type?

Not including: Kanji that don't use their specified readings.
The answers for おみやげ don't answer the classification of non-standard pronunciation (they answer other questions but the stated one).
The おとな related question is very specific to that word.
I believe the other stated duplicate doesn't answer this in general either. It would very hard for a searcher to find these somewhat duplicate questions.

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