I've seen sentences ending with "、と。" many times in some particular texts. Here are some examples:

Example 1 (source: 嫌われる勇気 by 岸見一郎)

青年 先生は「すべての悩みは対人関係の悩みである」とおっしゃる。裏を返せば、われわれの幸福もまた、対人関係のなかにあるのだ、と。しかしわたしには、このあたりがまだ納得できません。

Example 2 (source: niwasaburoo supplementary notes on tense)


I assume it's a shorthand for something like "と思う" or "と言う". Is that right?

The comma before the と also seems to be applied pretty consistently. Is that an important part of the grammar form?

Does this usage correspond to a particular speaking/writing style? Does it have some particular nuance? Any other important things to note?

1 Answer 1


It's quotative-と, but used after the corresponding verb because the quoted part was added as an afterthought. You can rephrase them like:



The comma before と is technically optional. But an author often does this intentionally to make the text look more dramatic by splitting a sentence into two. In such cases, a comma is a good way to add slight emotion to the second sentence.

  • Is it always the whole sentence before the "、と。" that gets added into the quote, or is it possible for there to be remarks from the speaker in between? For example, would it be possible that "裏を返せば" is something that the speaker says before introducing the second half of what 先生 says? Commented Oct 13, 2018 at 2:39
  • @NicolasLouisGuillemot So you are wondering if 裏を返せば is what 先生 actually said? I personally feel there is no reason not to think so, although it's ambiguous.
    – naruto
    Commented Oct 13, 2018 at 2:52

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