4

後には、その基準を流れのあるものととらえ、一緒に進む一続きの行動を表す文が来る。(part of explanation for ~に沿って)

俺のとまどいを不安の表れと思ったのか、そんなふうに声をかけて、彼女は教室を出て行った。

I've treated the を in these sentences as の. How is を used here, and what is the best way to interpret it? I assume it has something to do with the と-perception verb following it, but it doesn't line up for me.

3

I think you need to look at parsing the sentences in a different way, since you are cutting off the scope of your analysis too soon. I think the real pattern here is "N を N と V", where V is a verb of perception. Both of these sentences use that pattern to express perceiving one thing as another thing.

...

For the first sentence, I would split it up as follows:

[その基準]を

[流れのあるもの]と

とらえ

The verb とらえる means something like "to perceive". What is being perceived is "その基準", and what it is being perceived as is "流れのあるもの".

...

For the second sentence, I would split it up as follows:

[俺のとまどい]を

[不安の表れ]と

思った

The verb 思う means "to think". What is being thought about is "俺のとまどい", and what it is being thought as is "不安の表れ".

0

とらえる is a verb that requires を to indicate the direct object
Example: 魚をとらえる (to catch a fish)
https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/jn/160699/meaning/m0u/捕える/

One of the meanings of とらえる is "to understand", "to interpret":
物事の本質・内容などを理解して自分のものとする。把握する。

と is particle that can be translated as "as".

So the translation becomes:
その基準を(this standard)
流れのあるものと(something with a flow)
とらえる(understand)

その基準を流れのあるものととらえる
To understand this standard as something with a flow.

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