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the meaning of となった in this context is not entirely clear for me. Help, onegai.

世界同時株安の発端となったニューヨーク株式市場は、11日も売り注文が続き、ダウ平均株価は一時、前日に比べて700ドル近く値下がりしました。

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First, note the translation of the word in question:

  • X となる = "to become X"

Furthermore, note that putting a verb before a noun is a way to describe the noun. For example:

  • {話す/話した}人 = "A person who (will) talks/talked"
  • "田中さんが食べたステーキ" = "The steak that Mr. Tanaka ate."

So basically, the whole first part of the phrase (up to and including となった) are used to describe the noun after it: "ニューヨーク株式市場"

世界同時株安の発端となったニューヨーク株式市場は ...

The New York stock market which became the origin of a worldwide simultaneous period of low stock prices ...

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