Question. What is the diff between
On minna no nihongo B. is used but why not A? Why is the 2カ月 not before verb? What are the rules?
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According to "A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar", page16:
The word order principle for Japanese is the modifier precedes what is modified.
The principle holds whether the modified word is dependent or fully independent.
The function of the modifier is to specify the meaning of the specified word.
So what does ２ヶ月 modify?
２ヶ月勉強する means "to study for 2 months".
But what does ２ヶ月日本語 mean?
In this case ２ヶ月 modifies the verb, not the object, so it is better to put it before the verb, not before the object.