My grammar book states that である is used as copula in the written form to express ideas in a neutral fashion and that だ is also used in the written form to, quote, "sound more objective". But doesn't "sound more objective" = neutral point of view?

So, what are the different usages of である and だ in the written form?


1 Answer 1


According to "A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar", page 32:

The plain forms are used in formal writing, for example, in professional articles and editorials. Although である style is more formal than だ style, the two styles are ofter used together.

So, である is more formal than だ.

  • Ty! So, as pointed out by Chocolate, is safe to say that, apart from being more formal, だ more subjective than である? Commented Oct 4, 2018 at 17:19

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