Take for example the following,
(it) looks good.
Is it possible for one to attach a
〜そう phrase to the start of a noun?
a good apple as an example sentence, are any of the following correct?
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Should be the correct answer. Sō da is an auxiliary na-adjective, and when used to describe a noun, the prenominal form sōna should be used.
Other option is to use, for example when talking about a plate of apples:
どのりんごを食｛た｝べたの。 (Which apple you ate?)
良｛よ｝さそうなのを食｛た｝べた。 (I've ate the looking good one [apple])
When using the particle の, the whole pharse before it acts like a noun: 良｛よ｝さそうなの (The looking good one) . So it can be used with を食｛た｝べた.
The correct way is よさそうなりんご.
According to "A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar", page 410 to 412:
そうだ: an auxiliary adjective which indicates that what is expressed by the preceding sentence is the speaker's conjecture concerning an event in the future or the present state of someone or something, based on what the speaker sees or feels.
[ . . . ]
そうだ is a na-type adjective. The prenominal form is そうな.
Examples paraphrased from the book:
A car which looks expensive.
a sky which looks like it is going to rain