While it does appear in the Japanese dictionaries with the meaning of "gasoline", I would say it is not common to use it like in English, except for a few special cases like ガス欠｛けつ｝(being out of fuel) and ガス代｛だい｝ (gas bill*; can be used for both things such as propane gas and for other types of fuel, like gasoline, diesel, etc).
In general I would say that people use the words ガソリン or 油｛あぶら｝. The latter word simply means oil, but from context one understands what type of oil is meant, that is, any type of petroleum 石油｛せきゆ} (refined from crude oil 原油｛げんゆ｝), such as gasoline, diesel etc.
Diesel is referred to as 軽油｛けいゆ｝ or ディーゼル. ディーゼル is used more when talking about the type of car or engine, whereas 軽油 is used more when referring to the actual fuel, however at e.g. gas station you will see a mix of both.
A gas station is referred to as ガソリン スタンド, and can be shortened in a few different ways, the most common being ガソスタ (63 %), スタンド (~<19 %) or ガススタ (18 %) ( https://autoc-one.jp/news/5001816/ )
*In Japan it is common to subscribe to a refueling service with your local gas station, meaning that they fill up your cars regularly either by coming to your home/work and then send out a bill every month.