In this part of this Wikipedia article, it states

In other areas such as Hyogo and Mie, いる /iru/ is hardly used and おる /oru/ does not have the negative usage.

What I want to know is, does this statement mean that おる is used in nearly all of the instances いる would be used in Standard Japanese? Does おる also replace the duties of ある? How does おる work in Hyogo and Mie?


1 Answer 1


That statement basically only applies for おる as a simple existence verb. Non-humble おる is very common in Kansai. As a subsidiary verb, various forms including とる/ちょる/よる are commonly used instead of standard (~て)いる, but there are considerable regional variations even inside Kansai. See this discussion.

  • 太郎はおる。
    There is Taro. / Taro is here. (≒太郎はいる)
  • 太郎は来とる。
    [Chugoku/Shikoku] Taro has (already) arrived. (≒太郎は来ている)
    [Osaka/Kyoto] Taro is (now) coming. / Taro has (already) arrived. (≒太郎は来ている)
  • 太郎は来よる。
    [Chugoku/Shikoku] Taro is (now) coming. (≒太郎は来ている)
    [Osaka/Kyoto] (Damn,) Taro will come! (≒太郎は来やがる)

おる does not replace ある for inanimate objects. 本がおる is incorrect. (The article says the opposite (先生がある) happens in parts of Wakayama, but I'm not familiar with that.)

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