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In this Wikipedia article, in the table of i-adjectives, I noticed that some of these adjectives were completely different in the Kagoshima dialect compared to Standard Japanese in a way that these phonological processes, which affects all words used in the Kagoshima dialect, doesn't explain.

For example, 熱【あつ】い (hot) in Standard Japanese becomes ぬっか in the Kagoshima dialect, and 恥【は】ずかしい (embarassed) in Standard Japanese becomes げんなか.

I understand that certain parts of Kyushu use -か instead of -い for the plain and plain negative forms, but what I don't understand is the change in the stem.

Can someone please tell me if there are specific 'irregular' i-adjectives which undergo this or if this is typical of i-adjectives in the Kagoshima dialect?

And if these are typical of Kagoshima adjectives, is there any way of predict these changes?

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    I don't know Kagoshima-ben at all, but I would be very surprised if ぬっか and げんなか had any relationship to the standard Japanese adjectives rather than just being different words, like うまい and おいしい. – mamster Aug 23 '18 at 15:41
  • Do you check the line in the link in the first line, which brought up a table of adjectives? There you'll find that the Kagoshima-ben and the Standard Japanese adjectives share the same meaning. Unless, what you're suggesting is that the article has made an error, which is a possibility. – PearApple Aug 23 '18 at 15:43
  • Yes. I'm not arguing that the Kagoshima and standard adjectives have different meanings, just that some of them have different roots. It seems obvious that "waika" derives from "warui," but it's hard to imagine a process that would transform "atsui -> nukii" or "kawaii -> muji". It's not a stem change; it's a different word that fills the same niche. This happens all the time in dialects in a way that isn't predictable, which I guess maybe answers your question, but probably isn't a satisfying answer. – mamster Aug 23 '18 at 23:48
  • So you're saying that those radical stem changes are occassional? So those adjectives are just exceptions? – PearApple Aug 24 '18 at 3:36
  • If that's your answer, can you please write it in the answer box? – PearApple Aug 24 '18 at 3:58
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I don't know Kagoshima-ben at all, but I would be very surprised if ぬっか and げんなか had any relationship to the standard Japanese adjectives rather than just being different words, like うまい and おいしい.

It seems obvious that "waika" derives from "warui," but it's hard to imagine a process that would transform "atsui -> nukii" or "kawaii -> muji". It's not a stem change; it's a different word that fills the same niche. This happens all the time in dialects in a way that isn't predictable. In other words, there is often no good way to predict whether the box for a corresponding word in any dialect or related language is going to be filled by a word with a standard phonological change or a completely different word that may or may not have any hereditary relationship to the word in the source language.

I'm hoping someone with familiarity with Kagoshima-ben can weigh in, however, because this is really just a high-level linguistic observation.

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