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All of these words express "temporary" but I can't understand the difference and in which contexts each are used.

For example:

の包帯 A temporary bandage

一時的な住宅 A temporary residence

臨時列車 A temporary train

Are they all interchangeable in these sentences? What is the difference?

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  • 仮の is more like tentative. It describes something is to be replaced by an official/final/permanent one in the future. For example 仮のタイトル is a tentative title.
  • 臨時(の) is an antonym of regular, periodic or scheduled. It describes something is an additional, unscheduled or "ad-hoc" one.
  • 一時的 is temporary. It describes something is not permanent.

For example, in a job hunting context:

  • 仮(の)採用: You are tentatively or unofficially hired for evaluation. You may be fired if your performance turned out to be poor.
  • 臨時(の)採用: You are hired outside the regular/scheduled recruitment process. The employment relationship will be permanent unless otherwise mentioned.
  • 一時的(な)採用: Temporary employment. Your employment will finish after a certain period.

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