I was doing some JLPT N@ practice, and I got this question wrong:

留学中は日本の言語や文学を学ぶ( )、自分の国のことも伝えていこうと考えている。

a 上

b のみならず

c ばかりか

I chose "a" while the correct answer is "b". According to my book, all three answer seem correct.

My book says that (only quoting the relevant parts):







I thought it boils down to whether the former and latter half of the sentence are "at the sane level" or not, If they are, then 上 or のみならず. If the latter half is more "surprising" than the first half, then ばかりか. But still, why のみならず instead of 上?

1 Answer 1


What follows 上 must be greater things in the same field. e.g. 日本の言語や文学を学ぶ上(に)JLPT合格も目指す / 数学も学ぶ. In this regard, のみならず is versatile.

  • I basically agree with your answer, but can you please explain further when 上(に)would apply but not のみならず? I think doing so will help the asker better understand. As for myself, 上(に)just doesn't feel right in the above example. I'm guessing the ~う form of the verb(学ぶ)has something to do with it. If it were ~が学べる、then 上(に)could apply.
    – DXV
    Aug 10, 2018 at 7:17
  • (continuation) By the way ~伝えていこう should also be ~伝えていける in order for 上(に)to work in the above example, like this: 留学中は日本の言語や文学が学べる上(に)、自分の国のことも伝えていけると考えている。Just my guess.ネイティブの方に確認していただけると幸いです。
    – DXV
    Aug 10, 2018 at 8:11

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