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Please help me to understand how and when english-derived words are used in modern Japanese? I understand that ko-hi and garasu didn't exist in Japan, so there are no Japanese words for them. But I found that there exist gairaigo for such words as "knife" and "husband" and many others, which obviously exited as phenomenons BEFORE . So, could you please explain and give examples from your experience? Which words are preferable where? Are they all interchangeable, can they be used in scientific speech/text, in formal speech/text?

バカンス/休暇

ビル/建物

チケット/切符

ファイナル/最後

ママ/おかあさん

ミルク/牛乳

バッグ/鞄

ゼロ/零

アルバイト/働き

サラリーマン/社員

ドイツ/独国

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