Context: explanation of the Friction Stir Welding process. enter image description here In the fourth sentence I don't understand why there are two 〜により.


What is that is causing the process? The movement of the tool or the gradual plastic flow? My translation attempt:

Thanks to the movement of the tool the joining surfaces become agitated and unite thanks to the gradual plastic flow.

Also, in the sentence ツールの回転に引きずられる形で塑性流動 could you explain if 引きずられる refers the plastic flow being caused by the rotation of the tool or if it refers to the rotating tool being dragged? Thank you for your help!

1 Answer 1


Your translation attempt is fine. Wording could be slightly different but that is largely a matter of how you want the sentences to "feel". You understand the meaning of により, although "thanks to" seems like a very colloquial way to phrase it. I might choose "due to" or "because of" or perhaps "by (means of)", although that's nothing but a matter of preference.

There are two により because the sentence references two things being the cause of something:

ツールの移動により = by/due to the movement of the tool


接合界面同士が順次塑性流動により攪拌・一体化 = the surfaces to be bonded are gradually/steadily/systematically stirred and joined together by the plastic flow (of the metal).

As for 「ツールの回転に引きずられる形で塑性流動」, it's saying that the method of "dragging by rotation of the tool" results in the plasticity.

Thanks to @By137 for correcting my misunderstandings regarding "plastic" and "method".

  • 2
    In this case 形 is closer to "method" than "shape." And the material is metal, not plastic. Plastic flow is a term that can't be reworded as a flow of plastic.
    – By137
    Aug 3, 2018 at 4:26
  • 1
    I agree with By137. 引きずられる形 is NOT "dragged shape". It could be "form" though as "in the form of being dragged".
    – DXV
    Aug 3, 2018 at 4:38
  • Thank you for your answer! Are you sure that 順次 refers to 攪拌・一体化 and not to 塑性流動? Also, how "接合界面" becomes "the surfaces to be bonded"? The verb is left out in Japanese?
    – Marco
    Aug 3, 2018 at 17:47
  • HMM. now that you mention it, it might be more appropriate to say "stirred and joined together by the gradual plastic flow", according to the order of the words as written. However it doesn't change the actual meaning in English in a significant way. 接合界面 can be phrased in a couple different ways: "adjoining surfaces" or "adjacent surfaces" might be more literal. I assumed that the fact of their needing to be bonded was a key point so I phrased it "surfaces to be bonded" Aug 3, 2018 at 18:10
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    @Marco Adverbs modify a verb, in this case, 撹拌・一体化. However, what the writer is trying to say is ツールの移動により{接合界面同士が順次(塑性流動により撹拌・一体化)}.
    – user4092
    Aug 4, 2018 at 0:18

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