An enemy (a monster) in a game I was reading about is called [時を食らうもの]{ときをくらうもの}, which is translated as "Time Devourer". Is the もの used as sort of a -er suffix, or does it have a different function?

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    Could it mean the thing that eats time? Mono meaning thing? – JACK Aug 2 '18 at 17:02

[時]{とき}を[食]{く}らうもの, which is translated as "Time Devourer"

As @bjorn says in the comment, the もの can be [者]{もの} "person/someone", as well as [物]{もの} "thing/object/something".

It's (perhaps intentionally) written in Hiragana because it's referring to a monster.

Is the もの used as sort of a -er suffix, or does it have a different function?

The もの is a noun here, not a suffix. 時を食らうもの is a noun phrase, the relative clause 時を食らう modifying the noun もの.

「[[時]{とき}を[食]{く}らう]もの」-- lit. "someone/something [that eats time]" → "a time eater, a time devourer"

As pointed out by @bjorn, [者]{しゃ} is read as しゃ when used as a suffix. eg 「[担当者]{たんとうしゃ}」 person in charge 「[被害者]{ひがいしゃ}」 victim 「[技術者]{ぎじゅつしゃ}」 engineer ([者]{もの} can be used in compound words, too. eg 「[働]{はたら}き[者]{もの}」 hard worker 「[独]{ひと}り[者]{もの}」 unmarried person)
[物]{ぶつ} can also be used as a suffix. eg 「[爆発物]{ばくはつぶつ}」 explosives 「[出版物]{しゅっぱんぶつ}」 publications ([物]{もの} in compound nouns: 「[夏物]{なつもの}」 summer clothing 「[縁起物]{えんぎもの}」 good luck charm)

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    ググると、「時をらう者」より、「時をらう者」って書かれてるページのほうが多いです。 – Chocolate Aug 2 '18 at 22:45

as JACK says, もの means "thing". And of course, 人{ひと} means "person". However, "Thing that Eats Time/Time Eating Thing" or for example "Person That Eats Time/Time Eating Person" might feel not "punchy" enough as a title, so Japanese phrases using those kanji are sometimes translated into the "doer" form, such as "Time Devourer" (or "Time Eater").

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    Well, もの can also refer to a person, depending on the kanji. 物 for thing and 者 for person, a kanji that is usually used as a suffix and then pronounced しゃ, e.g. 医者{いしゃ} = physician – a20 Aug 2 '18 at 18:02

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