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I'm just wondering, because I think it would be helpful to know which words should be prefixed with お〜, which words should be prefixed with ご〜, and which words should not be prefixed with either of them.

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There's this general rule to add ご or お depending on whether the word is read with 音読{おんよ}み or 訓読{くんよ}み, but there are exceptions to it. I think Japanese people just use it the way it sounds more natural to them. In my opinion this is one of those things you learn practicing.

Anyway here is the list you are asking for, not sure if it's complete though:

http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~wd2y-kkb/g.htm

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    I think Japanese people just use it the way it sounds more natural to them. -- そんな単純なことでしょうか。。 漢語でも日常的に使う語には「お」がつく傾向がある、などいろいろあるのでは・・・ – Chocolate Aug 1 '18 at 1:20
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    @Antonio Val: Hey, thanks! This list is just the thing I'm looking for! The next time I come across Japanese nouns, I'll be able to check to see which prefix, if any, I should use! – Micheal Gignac Aug 2 '18 at 0:35
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    私たちは当然、ルールなんか考えながら話してません。話すときに毎回ルールを考えているかどうか、って問題じゃないんです。それぞれの語に「お」「ご」が使われるようになった歴史的な経緯とか理由が、それぞれあるでしょう、って言ってるんです。 – Chocolate Aug 2 '18 at 2:58
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    I think saying Japanese people just use it the way it sounds more natural to them is quite misleading and inaccurate when there are several logic/rules/historical reasons behind the uses of お and ご. – Chocolate Aug 2 '18 at 6:02
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    As I said above, we native speakers don't think of those rules when speaking, but it doesn't matter whether we think of these logic/rules/reasons when speaking. Even if we are not conscious/aware, these rules exist, and we are following them unconsciously. (Yes, we have "general rules", and we also have exceptions. But we have logic/reasons behind these exceptions, too) – Chocolate Aug 2 '18 at 6:15

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