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A follow-up to Why is が added at the end of この小娘が in this clip?

I'm currently aware of the following が particles / usages:

1) Subject marker (exhaustive listing). I think it can appear at the end if the sentence underwent a dislocation?
2) Conjuctive particle ~ "but", can appear at the end of a sentence if the rest is ommitted (among other reasons can be used for softening a request). Some sources state it can have introductory meaning when in that case it would be translated rather with "and" or "so"
3) Arguably an object marker, depends whether e.g. Xが好き is interpreted as ~ "to like X" or "X is likeable" (I am leaning towards the second camp, but I'm not a linguist)
4) Sentence-ending particle as explained in Why is が added at the end of この小娘が in this clip?
5) Possessive in older Japanese? Currently probably mainly seen in names ~ 戦場ヶ原 ... wiki says "In some cases both ヶ and が (and even ケ) are used to write a place name" so I think it may be included here

Are there any / what are other particles that can be written as が or other usages of those listed here?

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    I think #3 only looks objective from English. Within Japanese, it looks more like it's marking the subject of a statement about that subject, as you allude to -- for 好き, "is liked, is likeable"; for 分かる, "is understandable"; etc. For #5, it's not so much possessive, as modifying -- the noun or noun phrase before the が modifies the noun or noun phrase after it. So for 富士見ヶ丘, a not-uncommon place name, the head noun is 丘, and 富士見 is a modifier on that noun. Aug 24, 2018 at 21:03
  • Thank you for reply! Ad #3: I am in that camp as well, but there are more viewpoints and it's interesting that sometimes を can sometimes used where normally が is the proper one: -たい form, potential form (japanese.stackexchange.com/questions/609/…), even 分かる in e.g. 気持ちを分かる can afaik be used (maybe just casually?). This makes one wonder if the Japanese people can somewhat/sometimes/to some degree think of it in an object way after all. Don't know...
    – NoxArt
    Aug 24, 2018 at 22:18
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    I wonder too how much of that is influence from English (i.e. shifts in verb usage from subject to object), as it is a mandatory subject in mainstream Japanese education. Aug 25, 2018 at 0:04
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    That's no easy problem. For example, the potential object marker seems to have originally been を then changed to の/が around 1000 years ago. In addition, the subject in Japanese grammar is vague in the first place. You can say (infamous) 僕がうなぎだ or こんにゃくが太らない / 砂糖が太る beside double subject sentences.
    – user4092
    Aug 25, 2018 at 3:19
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    @user4092, re: potential verbs, very good paper about how those arose at jstage.jst.go.jp/article/nihongonokenkyu/12/2/12_1/_pdf. I haven't had time yet to read the whole thing, but skimming through, the author appears to build a strong case for how these arose, and how the particle usage shifted. Aug 25, 2018 at 3:21

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